Video Friday: ARTEMIS – IEEE Spectrum



With direct funding plus prize ebc0 cash that reached into the ebc0 hundreds of thousands, DARPA inspired ebc0 worldwide collaborations amongst prime educational ebc0 establishments in addition to business. ebc0 A sequence of three preliminary ebc0 circuit occasions would give groups ebc0 expertise with every setting.

Through the Tunnel Circuit occasion, ebc0 which passed off in August ebc0 2019 within the Nationwide Institute ebc0 for Occupational Security and Well ebc0 being’s experimental coal mine, on ebc0 the outskirts of Pittsburgh, many ebc0 groups misplaced communication with their ebc0 robots after the primary bend ebc0 within the tunnel. Six months ebc0 later, on the City Circuit ebc0 occasion, held at an unfinished ebc0 nuclear energy station in Satsop, ebc0 Wash., groups beefed up their ebc0 communications with all the things ebc0 from a simple tethered Ethernet ebc0 cable to battery-powered mesh community ebc0 nodes that robots would drop ebc0 like breadcrumbs as they went ebc0 alongside, ideally simply earlier than ebc0 they handed out of communication ebc0 vary. The Cave Circuit, scheduled ebc0 for the autumn of 2020, ebc0 was canceled resulting from COVID-19.

By the point groups reached ebc0 the SubT Remaining Occasion within ebc0 the Louisville Mega Cavern, the ebc0 main target was on autonomy ebc0 slightly than communications. As within ebc0 the preliminary occasions, people weren’t ebc0 permitted on the course, and ebc0 just one individual from every ebc0 workforce was allowed to work ebc0 together remotely with the workforce’s ebc0 robots, so direct distant management ebc0 was impractical. It was clear ebc0 that groups of robots capable ebc0 of make their very own ebc0 selections about the place to ebc0 go and the right way ebc0 to get there could be ebc0 the one viable method to ebc0 traverse the course shortly.

DARPA outdid itself for the ebc0 ultimate occasion, developing an infinite ebc0 kilometer-long course throughout the current ebc0 caverns. Delivery containers related end-to-end ebc0 shaped advanced networks, and plenty ebc0 of of them have been ebc0 rigorously sculpted and embellished to ebc0 resemble mining tunnels and pure ebc0 caves. Workplaces, storage rooms, and ebc0 even a subway station, all ebc0 constructed from scratch, comprised the ebc0 city phase of the course. ebc0 Groups had one hour to ebc0 seek out as lots of ebc0 the 40 artifacts as doable. ebc0 To attain some extent, the ebc0 robotic must report the artifact’s ebc0 location again to the bottom ebc0 station on the course entrance, ebc0 which might be a problem ebc0 within the far reaches of ebc0 the course the place direct ebc0 communication was unattainable.

Eight groups competed within the ebc0 SubT Remaining, and most introduced ebc0 a rigorously curated mixture of ebc0 robots designed to work collectively. ebc0 Wheeled autos supplied probably the ebc0 most dependable mobility, however quadrupedal ebc0 robots proved surprisingly succesful, particularly ebc0 over difficult terrain. Drones allowed ebc0 full exploration of a few ebc0 of the bigger caverns.

By the tip of the ebc0 ultimate competitors, two groups had ebc0 every discovered 23 artifacts: Group ebc0 Cerberus—a collaboration of the College ebc0 of Nevada, Reno; ETH Zurich; ebc0 the Norwegian College of Science ebc0 and Know-how; the College of ebc0 California, Berkeley; the Oxford Robotics ebc0 Institute; Flyability; and the Sierra ebc0 Nevada Corp.—and Group CSIRO Data61—consisting ebc0 of CSIRO’s Data61; Emesent; and ebc0 Georgia Tech. The equal scores ebc0 triggered a tie-breaker rule: Which ebc0 workforce had been the quickest ebc0 to its remaining artifact? That ebc0 gave first place to Cerberus, ebc0 which had been simply 46 ebc0 seconds quicker than CSIRO.

Regardless of coming in second, ebc0 Group CSIRO’s robots achieved the ebc0 astonishing feat of making a ebc0 map of the course that ebc0 differed from DARPA’s ground-truth map ebc0 by lower than 1 %, ebc0 successfully matching what a workforce ebc0 of knowledgeable people spent many ebc0 days creating. That’s the type ebc0 of tangible, elementary advance SubT ebc0 was supposed to encourage, in ebc0 response to Tim Chung, the ebc0 DARPA program supervisor who ran ebc0 the problem.

“There’s a lot that occurs ebc0 underground that we don’t usually ebc0 give a whole lot of ebc0 thought to, however if you ebc0 happen to take a look ebc0 at the quantity of infrastructure ebc0 that we’ve constructed underground, it’s ebc0 simply large,” Chung informed
ebc0 IEEE Spectrum ebc0 . “There’s a whole lot ebc0 of alternative in with the ebc0 ability to understand, perceive, and ebc0 navigate in subterranean environments—there are ebc0 engineering integration challenges, in addition ebc0 to foundational design challenges and ebc0 theoretical questions that we’ve got ebc0 not but answered. And people ebc0 are the questions DARPA is ebc0 most fascinated about, as a ebc0 result of that’s what’s going ebc0 to vary the face of ebc0 robotics in 5 or 10 ebc0 or 15 years, if not ebc0 sooner.”

This level cloud assembled by ebc0 Group CSIRO Data61 exhibits a ebc0 robotic view of almost your ebc0 complete SubT course, with every ebc0 dot within the cloud representing ebc0 some extent in 3D area ebc0 measured by a sensor on ebc0 a robotic. Group CSIRO’s level ebc0 cloud differed from DARPA’s official ebc0 map by lower than 1 ebc0 %


ebc0 IEEE Spectrum ebc0 was in Louisville to ebc0 cowl the Subterranean Remaining, and ebc0 we spoke lately with Chung, ebc0 in addition to CSIRO Data61 ebc0 workforce lead Navinda Kottege and ebc0 Cerberus workforce lead Kostas Alexis ebc0 and about their SubT expertise ebc0 and the affect the occasion ebc0 is having on the way ebc0 forward for robotics.

ebc0 DARPA has ebc0 a whole lot of packages ebc0 , however most of them ebc0 don’t contain multiyear worldwide competitions ebc0 with million-dollar prizes. What was ebc0 particular concerning the Subterranean Problem? ebc0

An illustration of Tim Chung ebc0 TIM CHUNG | ebc0 DARPA program supervisor ebc0 MCKIBILLO

ebc0 Tim Chung: ebc0 From time to time, one ebc0 in every of DARPA’s ideas ebc0 warrants a unique mannequin for ebc0 searching for out innovation. It’s ebc0 when you understand you’ve got ebc0 an impending breakthrough in a ebc0 subject, however you don’t know ebc0 precisely how that breakthrough goes ebc0 to occur, and the place ebc0 the normal DARPA program mannequin, ebc0 with a broad announcement adopted ebc0 by proposal choice, would possibly ebc0 limit innovation. DARPA noticed the ebc0 SubT Problem as a means ebc0 of attracting the robotics group ebc0 to fixing issues that we ebc0 anticipate being impactful, like resiliency, ebc0 autonomy, and sensing in austere ebc0 environments. And one place the ebc0 place you could find these ebc0 technical challenges coming collectively is ebc0 underground.

ebc0 The ability that these groups ebc0 had at autonomously mapping their ebc0 environments was spectacular. Are you ebc0 able to speak about that?

ebc0 T.C.: ebc0 We introduced in a workforce ebc0 of consultants with skilled survey ebc0 tools who spent many days ebc0 making a exactly calibrated ground-truth ebc0 map of the SubT course. ebc0 After which in the course ebc0 of the competitors, we noticed ebc0 these robots delivering almost full ebc0 protection of the course in ebc0 beneath an hour—I couldn’t imagine ebc0 how stunning these level clouds ebc0 have been! I believe that’s ebc0 actually an accelerant. When you’ll ebc0 be able to belief your ebc0 map, you’ve got a lot ebc0 extra actionable situational consciousness. It’s ebc0 not a solved drawback, however ebc0 when you’ll be able to ebc0 attain the extent of constancy ebc0 that we’ve seen in SubT, ebc0 that’s a gateway expertise with ebc0 the potential to unlock all ebc0 kinds of future innovation.

ebc0 Autonomy was a essential a ebc0 part of SubT, however having ebc0 a human within the loop ebc0 was crucial as effectively. Do ebc0 you suppose that people will ebc0 proceed to be a essential ebc0 a part of efficient robotic ebc0 groups, or is full autonomy ebc0 the longer term?

ebc0 T.C.: ebc0 Early within the competitors, we ebc0 noticed a whole lot of ebc0 hand-holding, with people giving robots ebc0 low-level instructions. However groups shortly ebc0 realized that they wanted a ebc0 extra autonomous method. Full autonomy ebc0 is difficult, although, and I ebc0 believe people will proceed to ebc0 play a fairly large function, ebc0 only a function that should ebc0 evolve and alter into one ebc0 thing that focuses on what ebc0 people do finest.

I believe that progressing from ebc0 human operators to human supervisors ebc0 will improve the forms of ebc0 missions that human-robot groups will ebc0 have the ability to conduct. ebc0 Within the remaining occasion, we ebc0 noticed robots on the course ebc0 exploring and discovering artifacts, whereas ebc0 the human supervisor was centered ebc0 on different stuff and never ebc0 even being attentive to the ebc0 robots. That was so cool. ebc0 The robots have been doing ebc0 what they wanted to do, ebc0 leaving the human free to ebc0 make high-level selections. That’s a ebc0 giant change: from what was ebc0 mainly distant teleoperation to “you ebc0 robots go off and do ebc0 your factor and I’ll do ebc0 mine.” And it’s incumbent on ebc0 the robots to turn into ebc0 much more succesful in order ebc0 that the transition [of the ebc0 human] from operator to supervisor ebc0 can happen.

A photo of a dark area with a quad legged robot lighting up a shaft of stone.

A photo of a quadruped moving through an underground tunnel with wood on the wall.  ebc0 An ANYmal quadruped from Group ebc0 Cerberus enters the course [top]. ebc0 Throughout
the competitors, solely robots and ebc0 DARPA employees have been allowed ebc0 to cross
this threshold. The visible ebc0 markers surrounding the course entrance
supplied ebc0 a exact origin level from ebc0 which the robots would base ebc0 the
maps they created. This allowed ebc0 DARPA to measure the accuracy ebc0 of the
artifact areas that groups ebc0 reported to attain factors. Cerberus’s
ANYmal ebc0 exits the city part of ebc0 the course, modeled after a ebc0 subway
station [bottom], and enters the ebc0 tunnel part of the course, ebc0 primarily based
on an deserted mine. ebc0
ebc0 Evan Ackerman

ebc0 What are some remaining challenges ebc0 for robots in underground environments?

ebc0 T.C.: ebc0 Traversability evaluation and reasoning concerning ebc0 the setting are nonetheless an ebc0 issue. Robots will have the ebc0 ability to transfer via these ebc0 environments at a quicker clip ebc0 if they will perceive a ebc0 bit of bit extra about ebc0 the place they’re stepping or ebc0 what they’re flying round. So, ebc0 although they have been one ebc0 to 2 orders of magnitude ebc0 quicker than people for mapping ebc0 functions, the robots are nonetheless ebc0 comparatively gradual. Shaving off one ebc0 other order of magnitude would ebc0 actually assist change the sport. ebc0 Velocity could be the last ebc0 word enabler and have a ebc0 dramatic impression on first-response eventualities, ebc0 the place each minute counts.

ebc0 What distinction do you suppose ebc0 SubT has made, or will ebc0 make, to robotics?

ebc0 T.C.: ebc0 The truth that lots ebc0 of the applied sciences getting ebc0 used within the SubT Problem ebc0 are actually being productized and ebc0 commercialized implies that the time ebc0 horizon for robots to make ebc0 it into the arms of ebc0 first responders has been far ebc0 shortened, in my view. It’s ebc0 already occurred, and was occurring, ebc0 even in the course of ebc0 the competitors itself, and that’s ebc0 a extremely nice impression.

ebc0 What’s troublesome and necessary about ebc0 working robots underground?

ebc0 NAVINDA KOTTEGE CSIRO | Data61 ebc0 workforce lead ebc0
ebc0 ebc0 MCKIBILLO
ebc0 ebc0

ebc0 Navinda Kottege: ebc0 The truth that we have ebc0 been in a subterranean setting ebc0 was one facet of the ebc0 problem, and a vital facet, ebc0 however if you happen to ebc0 break it down, what the ebc0 SubT Problem meant was that ebc0 we have been in a ebc0 GPS-denied setting, the place you’ll ebc0 be able to’t depend on ebc0 communications, with very troublesome mobility ebc0 challenges. There are numerous different ebc0 eventualities the place you would ebc0 possibly encounter these items—the Fukushima ebc0 nuclear catastrophe, for instance, wasn’t ebc0 underground, however communication was a ebc0 large subject for the robots ebc0 they tried to ship in. ebc0 The Amazon Rainforest is one ebc0 other instance the place you’d ebc0 encounter related difficulties in communication ebc0 and mobility. So we noticed ebc0 how every of those element ebc0 applied sciences that we must ebc0 develop and mature would have ebc0 functions in lots of different ebc0 domains past the subterranean.

ebc0 The place is the best ebc0 place for a human in ebc0 a human-robot workforce?

ebc0 N.Ok.: ebc0 There are two extremes. One ebc0 is that you simply push ebc0 a button and the robots ebc0 go and do their factor. ebc0 The opposite is what we ebc0 name “human within the loop,” ebc0 the place it’s basically distant ebc0 management via high-level instructions. But ebc0 when the human is taken ebc0 out of the loop, the ebc0 loop breaks and the system ebc0 stops, and we have been ebc0 experiencing that with brittle communications. ebc0 The center floor is a ebc0 “human on the loop” idea, ebc0 the place you’ve got a ebc0 human supervisor who units mission-level ebc0 targets, but when the human ebc0 is taken off of the ebc0 loop, the loop can nonetheless ebc0 run. The human added worth ebc0 as a result of that ebc0 they had a greater overview ebc0 of what was occurring throughout ebc0 the entire situation, and that’s ebc0 the kind of factor that ebc0 people are tremendous, tremendous good ebc0 at.

A photo of a robot approaching a pair of people and near an underground train station

A photo of a quadruped robot lighting up a cavern. ebc0 The subway station platform [top] ebc0 included many challenges
for robots. Wheeled ebc0 and tracked robots had specific ebc0 problem
with the rails. DARPA hid ebc0 artifacts within the ceiling of ebc0 the subway
station (accessible solely by ebc0 drone), in addition to beneath ebc0 a grate within the
platform ground. ebc0 Along with constructing many personalized ebc0 tunnels
and buildings contained in the ebc0 Louisville Mega Cavern, DARPA additionally
included ebc0 the cavern itself into the ebc0 course. This large room
[bottom] rewarded ebc0 robots that managed to discover ebc0 it with a number of
extra ebc0 artifacts.
ebc0 Evan Ackerman

ebc0 How did SubT advance the ebc0 sphere of robotics?

ebc0 N.Ok.: ebc0 For subject robots to ebc0 succeed, you want a number ebc0 of issues to work collectively. ebc0 And I believe that’s what ebc0 was pressured upon us by ebc0 the extent of complexity of ebc0 the SubT Problem. This entire ebc0 notion of with the ability ebc0 to reliably deploy robots in ebc0 real-world eventualities was, to me, ebc0 the important thing factor. Wanting ebc0 again at our workforce, three ebc0 years in the past we ebc0 had some cool bits and ebc0 items of expertise, however we ebc0 didn’t have robotic programs that ebc0 might reliably work for an ebc0 hour or extra and not ebc0 using a human having to ebc0 go and repair one thing. ebc0 That was one of many ebc0 greatest advances we had, as ebc0 a result of now, as ebc0 we proceed this work, we ebc0 don’t even should suppose twice ebc0 about deploying our robots and ebc0 whether or not they’ll destroy ebc0 themselves if we depart them ebc0 alone for 10 minutes. It’s ebc0 that degree of maturity that ebc0 we’ve achieved, due to the ebc0 robustness and reliability that we ebc0 needed to engineer into our ebc0 programs to achieve success at ebc0 SubT, and now we will ebc0 begin specializing in the following ebc0 step: What are you able ebc0 to do when you’ve got ebc0 a fleet of autonomous robots ebc0 which you could depend on?

ebc0 Your workforce of robots created ebc0 a map of the course ebc0 that matched DARPA’s official map ebc0 with an accuracy of higher ebc0 than 1 %. That’s wonderful.

ebc0 N.Ok.: ebc0 I bought contacted instantly ebc0 after the ultimate occasion by ebc0 the corporate that DARPA introduced ebc0 in to do the ground-truth ebc0 mapping of the SubT course. ebc0 They’d spent 100 person-hours utilizing ebc0 very costly tools to make ebc0 their map, they usually needed ebc0 to understand how on the ebc0 earth we bought our map ebc0 in beneath an hour with ebc0 a bunch of robots. It’s ebc0 query! However the context ebc0 is that our one hour ebc0 of mapping took us 15 ebc0 years of improvement to get ebc0 to that stage.

There’s a distinction in what’s ebc0 theoretically doable and what truly ebc0 works in the true world. ebc0 In its early phases, our ebc0 software program labored, in that ebc0 it hit all the theoretical ebc0 milestones it was presupposed to. ebc0 However then we began taking ebc0 it out to the true ebc0 world and testing it in ebc0 very troublesome environments, and that’s ebc0 the place we began discovering ebc0 all the sting circumstances of ebc0 the place it breaks. Primarily, ebc0 for the final 10-plus years, ebc0 we have been making an ebc0 attempt to interrupt our mapping ebc0 system as a lot as ebc0 doable, and that turned it ebc0 into a extremely well-engineered resolution. ebc0 Truthfully, every time we see ebc0 the outcomes of our mapping ebc0 system, it nonetheless surprises us!

ebc0 What made you resolve to ebc0 take part within the SubT ebc0 Problem?

An illustration of Kostas Alexis ebc0 KOSTAS ALEXIS | Cerberus workforce ebc0 lead ebc0
ebc0 ebc0 MCKIBILLO
ebc0 ebc0

ebc0 Kostas Alexis: ebc0 What motivated everybody was the ebc0 understanding that for autonomous robots, ebc0 this problem was extraordinarily troublesome ebc0 and related. We knew that ebc0 robotic programs may function in ebc0 these environments if people accompanied ebc0 them or teleoperated them, however ebc0 we additionally knew that we ebc0 have been very far-off from ebc0 enabling autonomy. And we understood ebc0 the worth of with the ebc0 ability to ship robots as ebc0 a substitute of people into ebc0 hazard. It was this mixture ebc0 of societal impression and technical ebc0 problem that was interesting to ebc0 us, particularly within the context ebc0 of a contest the place ebc0 you’ll be able to’t simply ebc0 do work within the lab, ebc0 write a paper, and name ebc0 it a day—you needed to ebc0 develop one thing that might ebc0 work throughout the finals.

A photo of a quadruped robot moving through a cavern.

A photo of a quadruped moving through a cavern next to a sign that says u201cDANGER, Enter at your own risk.u201d ebc0 Tight cave sections [top] required ebc0 cautious navigation by floor
robots. Stalactites ebc0 and stalagmites have been particularly ebc0 treacherous for
drones in flight. On ebc0 the proper of the image, ebc0 partially hidden by a
column, is ebc0 a blue coil of rope, ebc0 one of many artifacts. A ebc0 Group Cerberus
ANYmal [bottom] walks previous ebc0 an ornamental (however not inaccurate) ebc0 warning
signal, subsequent to a drill ebc0 artifact.
ebc0 Evan Ackerman

ebc0 What was probably the most ebc0 difficult a part of SubT ebc0 to your workforce?

ebc0 Ok.A.: ebc0 We’re on the stage the ebc0 place we will navigate robots ebc0 in regular officelike environments, however ebc0 SubT had many challenges. First, ebc0 counting on communications with our ebc0 robots was not doable. Second, ebc0 the terrain was not simple. ebc0 Usually, even terrain that’s exhausting ebc0 for robots is straightforward for ebc0 people, however the pure cave ebc0 terrain has been the one ebc0 time I’ve felt just like ebc0 the terrain was a problem ebc0 for people too. And third, ebc0 there’s the dimensions of kilometer-size ebc0 environments. The robots needed to ebc0 reveal a degree of robustness ebc0 and resourcefulness of their autonomy ebc0 and performance that the present ebc0 state-of-the-art in robotics couldn’t reveal. ebc0 The beauty of the SubT ebc0 Problem was that DARPA began ebc0 it ebc0 realizing ebc0 that robotics didn’t have ebc0 that capability, however requested us ebc0 to ship a aggressive workforce ebc0 of robots three years down ebc0 the street. And I believe ebc0 that method went effectively for ebc0 all of the groups. It ebc0 was an awesome push that ebc0 accelerated analysis.

ebc0 As robots get extra autonomous, ebc0 the place will people slot ebc0 in?

ebc0 Ok.A.: ebc0 It’s a reality now ebc0 that we will have excellent ebc0 maps from robots, and it’s ebc0 a undeniable fact that we’ve ebc0 got object detection, and so ebc0 forth. Nevertheless, we would not ebc0 have a means of correlating ebc0 all of the objects within ebc0 the setting and their doable ebc0 interactions. So, though we will ebc0 create superior, stunning, correct maps, ebc0 we aren’t equally good at ebc0 reasoning.

That is actually about time. ebc0 If we have been performing ebc0 a mission the place we ebc0 needed to ensure full exploration ebc0 and protection of a spot ebc0 with no time restrict, we ebc0 possible wouldn’t want a human ebc0 within the loop—we will automate ebc0 this absolutely. However when time ebc0 is an element and also ebc0 you wish to discover as ebc0 a lot as you’ll be ebc0 able to, then the human ebc0 capability to motive via information ebc0 could be very worthwhile. And ebc0 even when we will make ebc0 robots that typically carry out ebc0 in addition to people, that ebc0 doesn’t essentially translate to novel ebc0 environments.

The opposite facet is societal. ebc0 We make robots to serve ebc0 us, and in all of ebc0 those crucial operations, as a ebc0 roboticist myself, I want to ebc0 know that there’s a human ebc0 making the ultimate calls.

A photo of a flying drone hovering in a dark area.  ebc0 Whereas many of the course ebc0 was designed to look as ebc0 very like actual
underground environments as ebc0 doable, DARPA additionally included sections
that ebc0 posed very robot-specific challenges. Robots ebc0 had the potential
to get disoriented ebc0 on this clean white hallway ebc0 (a part of the city
part ebc0 of the course) in the ebc0 event that they couldn’t establish ebc0 distinctive options to
differentiate one a ebc0 part of the hallway from ebc0 one other.
ebc0 Evan Ackerman

ebc0 Do you suppose SubT was ebc0 capable of clear up any ebc0 important challenges in robotics?

ebc0 Ok.A.: ebc0 One factor, of which I’m ebc0 very proud for my workforce, ebc0 is that SubT established that ebc0 legged robotic programs may be ebc0 deployed beneath probably the most ebc0 arbitrary of circumstances. [Team Cerberus ebc0 deployed four ANYmal C quadrupedal ebc0 robots from Swiss robotics company ebc0 ANYbotics in the final competition.] ebc0 We knew earlier than SubT ebc0 that legged robots have been ebc0 magnificent within the analysis area, ebc0 however now we additionally know ebc0 that if you must cope ebc0 with advanced environments on the ebc0 bottom or underground, you’ll be ebc0 able to take legged robots ebc0 mixed with drones and you ebc0 need to be good to ebc0 go.

ebc0 When will we see sensible ebc0 functions of a few of ebc0 the developments made via SubT?

ebc0 Ok.A.: ebc0 I believe commercialization will ebc0 occur a lot quicker via ebc0 SubT than what we’d usually ebc0 anticipate from a analysis exercise. ebc0 My opinion is that the ebc0 time scale is counted by ebc0 way of months—it could be ebc0 a 12 months or so, ebc0 but it surely’s not a ebc0 matter of a number of ebc0 years, and usually I’m conservative ebc0 on that entrance.

By way of catastrophe response, ebc0 now we’re speaking about accountability. ebc0 We’re speaking about programs with ebc0 just about one hundred pc ebc0 reliability. That is rather more ebc0 concerned, since you want to ebc0 have the ability to reveal, ebc0 certify, and assure that your ebc0 system works throughout so many ebc0 numerous use circumstances. And the ebc0 important thing query: Are you ebc0 able to belief it? This ebc0 can take a whole lot ebc0 of time. With SubT, DARPA ebc0 created a broad imaginative and ebc0 prescient. I imagine we’ll discover ebc0 our means towards that imaginative ebc0 and prescient, however earlier than ebc0 catastrophe response, we’ll first see ebc0 these robots in business.

ebc0 This text seems within the ebc0 Could 2022 print subject as ebc0 “Robots Conquer the Underground ebc0 .”

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